Thursday, November 21, 2013

Report Says Wind Energy Reduces Pollution, Saves Water

While Pennsylvania is ranked 17th in national wind energy production, a state environmental advocacy group thinks the commonwealth can do better.According to a report released today by the PennEnvironment Research and Policy Center, wind energy is already providing more than 2.2 million megawatt-hours of electricity in Pennsylvania, and the group expects that number to rise 97 percent in the next five years.Erika Staaf, a clean water advocate for PennEnvironment, said the use of wind has avoided more than 1.3 million metric tons of carbon pollution — the equivalent of taking more than 278,000 cars off the road.“Gas extraction and coal production requires vast amounts of water, so that’s water that’s saved,” she said. “And we know that both of these sources of energy produce air pollution and climate pollution, so the more we can displace that from all sectors of our energy picture, the more that we’re going to be improving our environment.”The report states wind energy saves more than 596.7 million gallons of water per year, enough to meet the needs of 28,681 people.

According to the Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission, wind accounts for only 3 percent of the total electricity generated in Pennsylvania, while coal-fired plants produce about 34 percent of the state’s electricity.Staaf said the more traditional energy industries have an unfair advantage when it comes to federal support.“There are permanent subsidies sort of built into our tax code that support fossil fuel production energy industries and don’t support the renewable industry,” she said.Between 2002 and 2008, the fossil fuel industry received $72 billion in subsidies, while the renewable industry got $29 billion, according to Staaf.She said wind energy’s growth in the last decade is a direct result of federal incentives like the renewable energy production tax credits, but if that growth is going to continue the state needs to expand its Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard (AEPS).“It (the AEPS) wasn’t perfect,” Staaf said. “There were aspects of it that we certainly disagreed with, but in terms of promoting wind and solar, it was great. It’s lagged over the years and has not been as effective as promoting these burgeoning sources of energy as it should be.”Pennsylvania’s AEPS was created in 2004 and requires each electric distribution company and supplier in the state to supply 8 percent of electricity using “tier 1” energy sources (solar, hydro, geothermal, wind) by 2020.  The commonwealth’s 8 percent standard is overshadowed by neighboring states like Delaware and Maryland that have standards set above 20 percent.“It’s really time to level the playing field to allow wind and other renewable sources to really have their fair shake and compete properly,” she said. “At that point is when we’re going to see it truly compete with traditional sources of energy.”

Monday, November 18, 2013

Role Audio Canoe Loudspeaker Review

The Canoe has a one-inch-diameter soft dome tweeter and a four-inch woven carbon fiber midrange/woofer. Unlike most small monitors, which need some form of speaker stand to place the drivers at a proper height or angle so there is no attenuation of upper frequencies when placed on a desktop, the Canoe was designed so that, when it’s used for nearfield desktop listening, the drivers are at the ideal height vis-a-vis your ears. On my 28-inch-high desktop, the Canoe’s tweeter was one inch below my ear height without any stands or elevation devices.The Canoe’s crossover employs a film foil capacitor, metal oxide resistor, and a laminated perfect lay coil. Hand-wired and soldered with DH Labs silver-plated copper wire to the tweeter and oxygen-free multi-strand copper wire to the woofer, the Canoe uses one set of Superior insulated five-way binding posts mounted on a terminal cup to facilitate wall or near-wall placement. Bi-wiring is not available.Intro of Clutch System Clutch is actually situated at the flywheel shell between

For audiophiles who are concerned with ecological or personal health issues, the Canoe is made using certified green birch plywood and CARB2 MDF, which has no urea formaldehyde to off-gas into your environment. Also, Role employs non-toxic glues and paints throughout its manufacturing process. The Canoe comes with a black fabric grille that’s held in place with magnets rather than push-in attachments. This makes for a much cleaner look when the grilles are removed. Most of my listening time was spent sans grilles.Installing the Canoe speakers in my desktop system was simple. The most time-consuming part was removing the GoldenEar Aon 2 speakers, along with the Ultimate Support speaker stands and high-density foam risers beneath them. After the desktop was vacated, I merely placed the Canoes at equidistant positions on either side of my NEC 26-inch monitor and then angled them in so that, from my listening position, I couldn’t see their sidewalls. To make sure that both speakers were angled identically, I used the free iPhone/iPad app from Genelec speakers called “SpeakerAngle”. After initial setup, I found that extremely small changes in the speakers’ physical locations could result in big differences in soundstage presentation. Even a cat brushing the speakers as it walked across my desk could move the speakers enough that they required repositioning.

Monday, November 11, 2013

Intro of Clutch System Clutch is actually situated at the flywheel shell between

Intro of Clutch System Clutch is actually situated at the flywheel shell between the engine and also gearbox, with screws to repair clutch assembly in the flat back again of the flywheel, clutch's output shaft is actually gearbox's input shaft. Excellent Fashion Stars for scaffold supplies Fashion Stars Inspiration Throughout the auto shifting method, the driver can depress or launch the clutch pedal in accordance with the particular particular wants, making short-term separation and also progressive joint of the engine also, the gearbox, to cut off or transfer the power input from engine to your transmission. Hey! adjustable base jack are the Favorites of People in KharkovIt principally consists of the lively component, the particular driven part, the particular pressed physique and also control body.The active part consists of flywheel, clutch cover and also strain plate; the driven part could be the driven plate; and the pressed physique is the pressed spring; although management body has fork, release bearing, clutch pedal and transmission components.Clutch is installed in between engine and also transmission, in the main procedure from the vehicle begin to proceed, drivers often have to utilize the particular clutch. Its part would be to make the engine and also transmission step by step join collectively, for this reason Sunshine Power: expansion of wind power inverter PV power plant investmen guaranteeing the clean starting of the car; briefly cut off the link between the particular engine and transmission so as to shift and decrease the particular influence when shifting; When the car is actually emergently braking, it could play the separate role in preventing the transmission along with other drive method overload, so clutch can play particular protective function.Clutch is similar to the switch, it has the particular joint or break the particular energy transmission function, accordingly, any form of autos need to have clutch, only the particular form is usually various.Clutch could be split into electromagnetic clutch, magnetic clutch, friction clutch, hydraulic clutch.First, electromagnetic clutchIt controls clutch's connection and separation count on turning on and off the particular power within the coil.Electromagnetic clutch can be split into: dry single-plate electromagnetic clutch, dry electromagnetic multi-plate clutch, wet multi-plate electromagnetic clutch, magnetic clutch, slip electromagnetic clutch etc.According to electromagnetic clutch's operating method, it might be put into: power-on combining and also power-off combining.Second, magnetic clutchPlace the magnetic powder in between the lively component additionally, the driven component, the magnetic powder is definitely inside the loose state when it really is power off, once the magnetic powder would be combined when it is power on, the particular energetic component and the driven component will rotate at the same time. Its merits: it can adjust the particular torque by controlling the present, permitting the larger slip. Its disadvantages: temperature will probably be significantly rising when it's huge slip, its value can be higher contrary to other clutches.

Thursday, November 7, 2013

Sunshine Power: expansion of wind power inverter PV power plant investmen

600,000 kilowatts of wind power converter technology projects . Intends to invest 60 million yuan raised funds an annual 600,000 kilowatts wind energy converters transformation projects , the project construction period is 18 months after the completion of the company will be capable of full-power wind energy converter products 400,000 kilowatts , double-fed wind energy converter series production capacity of 200,000 kilowatts , is put into sales revenue of 176 million yuan is expected to contribute , contribution to net profit 17.34 million yuan ;

Were invested 3 million yuan in Gansu Jiuquan established Chaoyang New Energy Co. Ltd. and Sanyo New Energy Co., Ltd. Jiuquan into photovoltaic power plant investments. Help the company develop the next generation PV inverter products and grid technology research, while improving the company's industrial chain.

Wind energy converter substantial expansion of production capacity , technical level to meet market demand . Wind energy converter is the company 's second largest PV inverter outside business , in 2011 sales revenue of 74.96 million yuan , accounting for 8.58% , an increase of 73.06% . The transformation project is based on the existing equipment , the implementation of the system 3MW 690V inverter platform development and performance upgrades , medium pressure systems and above 5MW power converter platform construction , is put into ( 2015 ) the company will an annual full-power wind energy converters 400,000 kilowatts , double-fed wind power converter products 200,000 kilowatts , a total of 600,000 kilowatts of capacity, compared to 180,000 kilowatts in 2011 the company 's production capacity has increased dramatically.

Doubly-fed wind power inverter main supporting doubly-fed wind turbine , wind energy converter full power main supporting direct drive , semi- direct-drive wind turbines , and other types . The technological complexity of the grid specifically designed to be optimized to adapt to harsh environments and harsh wind farm grid environment ; optimize the fan system applications to achieve high efficiency and power generation, represents the current mainstream technology trends. Company WindPlus + wind converter represents a homemade converter high level , with good low voltage ride through capability and meets wind energy converter trends.

Wind power industry has entered a rapid development stage from the adjustment phase , restricting domestic wind power development of the biggest drawbacks is the " grid " unstable , to solve this problem is the most effective way to improve the performance of current transformer . At present, foreign wind energy converter brand occupy a larger market share , domestic inverter in a standardized , intelligent , functional completeness , scalability, and stability and so there is a certain gap . Company to increase wind energy converter technology investment , in line with the direction of the wind power industry market development , with the price advantage of domestic high-quality converter to better meet market demand.

Friday, November 1, 2013

Global Solar Photovoltaic Industry Becomes Net Energy Producer

The rapid growth of the solar power industry over the past 10 years may have worsened the global warming situation it was meant to ease, as the energy used to manufacture the millions of solar panels now generating electricity around the world came from burning fossil fuels.Stanford University researchers have calculated that imbalance is now history and the global PV industry could pay off its debt of energy as early as 2015, and no later than 2020.For the first time, the electricity generated by all of the world’s installed solar photovoltaic panels last year “probably surpassed the amount of energy going into fabricating more modules,” said Michael Dale, a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford’s Global Climate & Energy Project, GCEP.“This analysis shows that the industry is making positive strides,” said Dale, who developed an innovative way of assessing the industry’s progress globally in a study published in the current edition of the journal “Environmental Science & Technology.”“Despite its fantastically fast growth rate, PV is producing, or just about to start producing, a net energy benefit to society,” said Dale.Global photovoltaic installations are forecast to exceed 35 gigawatts in 2013, equivalent to growth of 12 percent, according to recently released analysis from IHS, an energy information consultancy. The IHS analysis shows that global PV installations grew 14 percent to reach 31.4 GW last year.The PV industry has run an energy deficit from 2000 to now, consuming 75 percent more energy than it produced just five years ago. The researchers expect this energy debt to be paid off as early as 2015, due to declining energy inputs, more durable panels and more efficient conversion of sunlight into electricity.

Co-author Sally Benson, GCEP’s director, said the changing energy balance is due to the declining amount of energy required to manufacture and install PV systems.“GCEP is focused on developing game-changing energy technologies that can be deployed broadly. If we can continue to drive down the energy inputs, we will derive greater benefits from PV,” Benson said. “Developing new technologies with lower energy requirements will allow us to grow the industry at a faster rate.”The energy used to produce solar panels is intense, explains Mark Golden of Stanford’s Precourt Energy Efficiency Center. “The initial step in producing the silicon at the heart of most panels is to melt silica rock at 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit using electricity, commonly from coal-fired power plants.”But as investment and technological development have risen with the number of installed panels, the energetic costs of new photovoltaic modules have declined, Golden says.Thinner silicon wafers are now used to make solar cells, less highly refined materials are now used as the silicon feedstock, and less of the costly material is lost in the manufacturing process.The efficiency of solar cells using thin film technologies that rely on earth-abundant materials such as copper, zinc, tin and carbon offers the potential for greater improvements.

To be considered a success, or simply a positive energy technology, PV panels must pay back all the energy that went into them, said Dale.If current rapid growth rates persist, by 2020 about 10 percent of the world’s electricity could be produced by PV systems.At today’s energy payback rate, producing and installing the new PV modules would consume around nine percent of global electricity. But, if the energy intensity of PV systems continues to drop at its current learning rate, then by 2020 less than two percent of global electricity will be needed to sustain growth of the industry, the Stanford researchers project.Continued reduction of the energetic costs of producing PV panels can be accomplished by using less materials or switching to producing panels that have much lower energy costs than technologies based on silicon.The study’s data covers the various silicon-based technologies as well as newer ones using cadmium telluride and copper indium gallium diselenide as semiconductors. Together, these types of PV panels account for 99 percent of installed panels.The energy payback time can also be reduced by installing PV panels in locations with high quality solar resources, like the desert Southwest in the United States and the Middle East. “At the moment, Germany makes up about 40 percent of the installed market, but sunshine in Germany isn’t that great,” Dale said. “So from a system perspective, it may be better to deploy PV systems where there is more sunshine.”The PV industry’s energetic costs can differ from its financial costs. Installation and the components outside the solar cells, such as wiring and inverters, as well as soft costs like permitting, account for a third of the financial cost of a solar PV system, but only 13 percent of the energy inputs. The industry is focused primarily on reducing financial costs.The researchers say this accounting of energetic costs and benefits should be applied to any new energy-producing technology, as well as to energy conservation strategies that have large upfront energetic costs, such as retrofitting buildings. They already have begun to apply the analysis to energy storage and wind power.